martes, febrero 15, 2005

Tema 4

LA EUROPA DEL BARROCO Y EL FIN DE LA HEGEMONÍA ESPAÑOLA

1.- CRISIS Y TRANSFORMACIONES ECONÓMICAS EN EL SIGLO XVII
Crisis demográfica, económica y social.
Cierta expansión en el siglo XVI vs. crisis en el XVII principalmente en el Mediterráneo y Alemania no en Inglaterra y Holanda. Causas:
Crisis demográfica.
Descenso de la producción de cereales.
Estancamiento de la manufactura.
Crisis del comercio americano.
Todos estos elementos trajeron consigo las primeras rebeliones urbanas y campesinas y el bandolerismo.
La política económica del siglo XVII: el mercantilismo.
· Mercantilismo: doctrina y práctica económica predominante durante el XVI, XVII y buena parte del XVIII. (Definición de mercantilismo).
· Intervención del Estado en la economía -> Sólo Francia e Inglaterra lo consiguen. Actas de Navegación.
· Medios:
o Fomentar exportaciones y gravar importaciones (proteccionismo).
o Manufacturas.
o Compañías privilegiadas.
2.- LA GUERRA DE LOS TREINTA AÑOS Y LA EUROPA DE WESTFALIA.
La guerra de los Treinta Años.
Plano político, religioso y social varias guerras (citar cuáles) -> Destacar G. 30 años.
Confluyeron: Guerra de España con Prov. Unidas del Norte de los Países Bajos (Holanda) –1621/1648- + conflicto católicos vs. protestantes.
Dimensión: Suecia + Dinamarca + España + Francia + Holanda.
No sólo guerra religiosa también Austrias alemanes conseguir supremacía en el Báltico + Austria vs. Francia por hegemonía en Europa.
Hasta 1635 favorable a los Austrias pero entrada de Francia fin hegemonía española.
La paz de Westfalia y el nuevo orden europeo.
Paz de Westfalia (1648) + paz de los Pirineos (1659).
P. Westfalia = fin hegemonía Austrias pasando a Luis XIV de Francia.
Territorialmente: independencia de Prov. Unidas de Holanda (sin firmar) + independencia de Suiza. Francia se anexionó: Metz + Toul + Verdún.
Políticamente: fracaso centralización Imperio alemán control por Dieta Imperial.
Religiosamente: admisión calvinistas = que luteranos y católicos, resto ilegales.
España pasa a ser una potencia de segundo orden.
Holanda: potencia económica + comercial.
3.- EL FIN DE LA HEGEMONÍA ESPAÑOLA.
Los prolegómenos de la crisis.
Reinado Felipe III (1589-1621) Transición -> Expulsión de los moriscos.
Crisis y decadencia del imperio español.
Reinado Felipe IV (1621-1665) pto. Culminante crisis con el valido Conde-Duque de Olivares por reanudación conflictos en Europa Guerra 30 Años y Guerra Países Bajos.
Unión de Armas (1621-1665)
Separación de Cataluña (1640-1652) + levantamiento Portugal (1640 reconocida indep. En 1668) + Nápoles y Sicilia (1647-1649) + conspiraciones secesionistas en Andalucía, Aragón y Galicia.
Westfalia (1648) => independencia de Holanda + T. De los Pirineos (1659) => plazas de Bélgica y dominio del Rosellón y Cerdeña para Francia.
El final de la dinastía de los Austrias.
· Carlos II (1665-1700) tímida recuperación vs. problema sucesorio.
· Política imperialista de Francia por lo que se entrega a Francia nuevas plazas de Bélgica y del Franco Condado.
· Carlos II deja a Felipe de Anjou nieto de Luis XIV => Borbones.

4.- EL ABSOLUTISMO Y LA AFIRMACIÓN DEL PARLAMENTARISMO BRITÁNICO.
A. La monarquía absoluta en Francia.
· Clima favorable al absolutismo tras Guerra Treinta Años ð Francia modelo absolutista.
· Luis XIV (1661-1715) punto culminante autoridad real ð se despojó a la nobleza del poder político → concentración poder en el rey → Consejos.
· Ministro Principal controlaba las finanzas → 1665 Colbert hasta 1682.
· Intendente control provincias.
· Poderoso ejército ð alto coste para el pueblo.
B. Absolutismo y parlamentarismo en Inglaterra.
· Dinastía Estuardo intenta imponer absolutismo (Carlos I -1625/1649-) ð enfrentamiento con Cámara de los Comunes ð guerra civil (1642-1648) realistas vs. Parlamentarios.
· Ley de Habeas Corpus 1679 con Carlos II → Jacobo II intenta derogarla y nuevo enfrentamiento Revolución Gloriosa 1668.
· Guillermo III aceptó la Declaración de Derechos de 1689 ð división de poderes.
5.- LA REVOLUCIÓN CIENTÍFICA E INTELECTUAL DEL SIGLO XVII.
A. La revolución científica.
· Siglo XVII supuso triunfo pensamiento + ciencia moderna impulsada desde el Renacimiento → surge al margen de las Universidades → iglesias ven con recelo a esta nueva ciencia.
· Razón + experimentación ð Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) (sistema planetas)→ Kepler (matemáticas) → Dercartes + Bacon (filosofía) → Newton (física) → Harvey (anatomía).
B. El pensamiento político.
· Dos corrientes:
o Defensores absolutismo = Francisco Suárez + Bossuet (basados en la Biblia) + Hobbes (alejado planteamientos teológicos).
o Anti-absolutismo = Locke gobierno civil surge por pacto social.

6.- EL ARTE DEL BARROCO.
· Origen término del portugués barrueco = pela irregular → desarrollado entre el XVII y XVIII
· Barroco de la Iglesia y de las monarquías absolutas (propio de la Contrarreforma con predominio temática religiosa e intención didáctica) vs. Barroco de la burguesía
· Arquitectura = recargada → predominio curva en la fachada + columnas salomónicas.
· Escultura → destaca imaginería religiosa esculpida sobre piedra o madera policromada → realismo exagerado.
· Pintura → naturalismo + realismo → temática religiosa + retrato político (propaganda).

7.- EL SIGLO DE ORO ESPAÑOL.
· Lope de Vega + Tirso de Molina + Calderón de la Barca.
· Novela picaresca → Mateo Alemán + Quevedo.
· Novela corta → Cervantes.
· Siglo del Teatro.
· Poesía culta = Góngora.
· Arquitectura = estilo Herreriano = Plaza Mayor de Madrid o Cárcel de la Corte.
· Escultura = Temática religiosa.
· Pintura = Temática religiosa + encargos de la Corte + pintura histórica + bodegón + paisaje + tema mitológico (Ribera + Zurbarán + Velázquez + Ribalta + Murillo + Valdés Leal).
· Velázquez obras.

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